Great bit of history here from The History of Wales: On September 11th 1297, The Battle of Stirling Bridge occurred. It was the scene of William Wallace's greatest triumph against the English. The 'name' Wallace is an old Scots term meaning Welsh speaking or 'of Welsh stock' and although William Wallace was born and raised in Scotland, it is almost certain that his ancestors were Welsh. The Wallace's left Oswestry, which up until that time was in Wales, for Scotland around the year 1170. The town of Stirling was the key entry point to the north of Scotland and a mighty English Army under the command of the Earl of Surrey had arrived in Stirling on a mission to put down Scots resistance to English rule. The Scots waited until half of the English force had crossed the bridge. Then William Wallace led a charge that cut into the unprepared English, splitting their army in two, and reinforcements from the far bank could only be sent in twos across the bridge. Most of the men who had crossed were killed by the Scots and the English baggage train was captured. Surrey fled south to Berwick. Wallace went on to lead a destructive raid into northern England and by March 1298, he had emerged as Guardian of Scotland. His glory, however, was brief, for Edward I, who had returned from Flanders, led a force north himself. The two men finally met on the field of Falkirk in the summer of 1298, where Wallace was defeated and forced to go on the run. Wallace evaded capture until 5 August 1305 when he was turned over to the English and transported to London, where he was tried and found guilty of treason. In his defence, his stated that he was never Edward's subject and, therefore, could not be a traitor. However on 23rd August 1305, he was stripped naked and dragged through the city at the heels of a horse to the Elms at Smithfield, where he was hanged, drawn and quartered, released whilst still alive, emasculated and his bowels burnt in front of him. He was then beheaded and his preserved head (dipped in tar) was placed on a pike on top of London Bridge.